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Multigrade teaching guide for Zambian teachers.

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Guide for organizing a Multigrade Teaching Workshop in your province,district,zone or school.
What is multigrade teaching ?
Classroom management
Multigrade material development
Tips for the multigrade teacher
Teaching in the multigrade classroom
Survey to assess the impact of a multigrade teaching workshop
Demonstration lesson plan for a multigrade lesson on the subject staggering option
Lesson plans integrated per grade.You can put yourself the lessons in the multigrade way.
More sample lesson preparations. Have a good time.
Lesson preparation book made by students.

LESSON PLAN

 

 

Introduction

Development

Development

Evaluation/homework/remedial work.

 

 

Teachers' activity

Pupils activity

 

Grade  all

Theme   Town

Lesson  PE

Playing in the town, on the market place

References

Date/period/dura tion

Teaching Materials

pupils play area.

Skills/Competency

1. Children use movement extensively to explore and enjoy the environment and develop their learning.

2. They acquire and secure motor and co-ordination skills.

Remark:

PE enables pupils to perform reflectively and with increasing physical competence and confidence in a range of physical activities and contexts. It promotes physical skills and physical development

 

 

Specific objectives

1. The pupils know the importance of being active.

 2. Children select skills and use rules and equipment safely for purpose.

 3. They can play simple games.

Arrangement of the materials/classroom.

- Bean's activity:

This activity is ideal for use as a warm-up before the main part of most lessons.

The teacher explains that we are walking on the market place in town. We see a lot of people like here on the play area.

The children should begin by walking around the play area in any direction; Dont call it play area but market place.

On the various commands listed below, they should carry out the appropriate action.

The teacher will tell the children that on a market place we can buy a lot of vegetables. On of the vegetables, the bean escaped from his boss and is making a walk on the market place.

1. Jump around the market place. (Jumping bean)

2. Run around. (Runner bean)

3. Walk around taking as large strides as possible. (Broad bean)

4. Wobble like a jelly. (Jelly bean)

5. Shiver and shake. (Chilli bean)

6. Children have to stand very still (frozen bean)

7. Walk around with a puzzled/vacant expression, muttering under your breath! (Mr Bean)

8. Stand on tiptoes and make yourself as tall and thin as possible. (Bean sprouts)

9. Stand on the spot, making you as long and thin as a piece of string. (String beans)

10. Lie flat on the floor, spreading arms and legs out as far as possible. (Baked beans (5 min)

 

1. Game:

 

The children are standing scattered on the playground.

There is a policeman and several thieves.

All the thieves have stolen money from the bank or vegetables from the market place...

The policeman has to catch as much as possible thieves in one minute.

Play this game six times. (6 min)

2. Put the children in their groups and tell them that they have to pass a very dangerous road (Burma road, Cairo road...) in the town.

One by one the children will cross the street (playground, limited) and come back to the group by doing:

                - On all fours

                - Hare jump

                - Jumping on both feet

                - Running backwards.

 -Taking big steps. (7 min)

3. Game:

 

Men from the city council are picking up all the street cats and street dogs. Every time a dog or a cat is cached it has to stand still, it becomes a statue. This statue can be alive again when another cat or dog will creep trough the legs of that statue. Do not forget to tell that a caught cat or dog must stand in straddle. (5 min)

4. A. In a town there are a lot of bridges and we have to go under them. All the children stand in straddle in line (two or three groups). The last in line will creep through all the legs of the children before him and stand in front, in straddle. And so on till the last one is under the last bridge at the other end of the town (play ground)

b.  The second exercise: All the children stand in straddle in line, they have to jump over the bridges. The last one in line will jump over every child before him or her (leapfrog) and will stand in front. And so on till the last is over the last bridge.

 

c. All the children will stand in line with an interval of one meter between each child.

The children have to slalom between the other cars (children) because they have tyre trouble. (10 min)

 

The children are standing scattered on the playground.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

One by one the children will cross the street (playground, limited) and come back to the group by doing:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All the children stand in straddle in line (two or three groups).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

All the children stand in straddle in line, they have to jump over the bridges.

 

 

 

All the children will stand in line with an interval of one meter between each child.

 

ENDGAME

Handkerchief lay:

 

The children sit on the grass in a circle. One of them is the police man all the rest are deputy policeman, they are learning how they have to run behind a thief. The police man (chief inspector) has a handkerchief in the hand and runs around the circle. The PM runs around the circle and after a few seconds he or she will drop the handkerchief at the back of one of the deputies. If one of them remarks it, he or she will run as fast as possible behind the one who dropped the handkerchief.. If this one is fast enough, he or she has to sit down on the place of the deputy, which is running behind him.

The deputy has to go in the middle of the circle. The chief inspector can play again. If the CI is caught, he will go in the middle of the circle and the deputy will become Chief Inspector of the town.(7 min)

 

 

 

 

LESSON PLAN MUSIC  

 

 

Introduction

Development

Development

Evaluation/homework/remedial work.

 

 

Teachers' activity

Pupils activity

 

Grade all

Theme Town

Lesson Music

If you are happy

References

Date/period/dura tion

Teaching Materials

blackboard, chalk, and drawings

Skills/Competency - Pupils develop the ability to listen carefully with increasing understanding of how sounds are made, changed and organised.

-  They explore and begin to control, sounds and silence trough singing songs from memory.

Specific objectives

 

-  The children can listen with concentration, internalise sounds and increase aural memory.

 -  The children know how the different ways sounds can be made, e.g. vocalising, clapping, and shaking

 -  The children can sing the song with diction, control of pitch and a sense of phrase.

Remarks:  Music provides a powerful and distinctive form of communication and expression.

It affects emotions. It develops thinking, increasing, perception, imagination, creativity and physical coordination.

Arrangement of the materials/classroom.

 

 

You tell a story about children from different parts of the country meeting in Lusaka. They are telling stories from the bush. During the story all the movements, which are present in the song you are about to teach, will be introduced. The six movements are represented in pictures and will be accompanied with key words or key sentences. These words are written on cards.

These pictures and words will be used in teaching of song.

A. After you have told the story, you tell the pupils that the children from the bush and the city learned a song during the gathering.

You can ask the pupils if some one knows a song about hello, hands, feet, You can ask some children to sing. If the song you wanted to teach to the class is not found, you tell them that you know a very nice song. You sing the song making the noises and the movements.

a. First of all you sing the whole song.

b. You write the first stanza on the blackboard.

c. You read the first line.

d. You sing the first line. The children repeat after you.

e. You read and sing the second line. The children repeat.

f. You read and sing the first and the second lines.

g. You read and sing the third line. The children repeat

h. You read and sing the 1st, 2nd, 3d lines. The children repeat.

i. So on until you have read and sung the whole stanza.

B. You take the same steps till you have taught the whole song.

C. While you read and sing the song, you also explain the most difficult words. You also show the pictures of the key words.

E. Write the song on a chart and put it on the wall. Fix the pictures on the blackboard.

D. Have the children repeat and sing frequently. Individually, in groups, classically

Step by step, the children will have to memorise the song. How to proceed?

If you're happy and you know it say hello.

If you `re happy and you know it say hello.

       If you're happy and you know it and you really want to show it.

       If you're happy and you know it say hello.

-       Sing the song again.

-          Let the children indicate the key words.

-          Rub out the key words; substitute the key words by the pictures.

-          Let some of the children sing the song again.

-          Rub out all the verbs.

-          Let some of the children sing the song again.

-          Rub out all the other words and just leave the pictures.

-          Let some of the children sing the song again.

-          Take away the pictures.

-          All the children have to sing the song by heart.

 Apply the same memorising-technique for the other stanzas.

In grade 1 you teach 1 stanza, in grade 2 two stanzas, in grade 3 three stanzas, etc.

-Every child is able to sing the song by heart.

-Every child is able to sing the song by heart.

The pupils will sing the whole song.

The pupils will sing the whole song.

Content ;

The cards with sentences

 

CLAP YOUR HANDS

STAMP YOUR FEET

SAY HELLO

SAY GOODBEY

GIVE A KISS

SHAKE YOUR BODY

 

The cards with words

HANDS

FEET

HELLO

GOODBEY

KISS

BODY

 

LESSON PLAN Mathematics

 

 

Introduction

Development

Development

Evaluation/homework/remedial work.

 

 

Teachers' activity

Pupils activity

 

Grade all

Theme Town

Lesson  Mathematics,Time

References

Date/period/dura tion

Teaching Materials

clocks

Skills/Competency

 

Specific objectives

I = grade 1 and 2

II = grade 3 and 4

III = grade 5,6 and 7.

I

Interpret the difference between the long and the short hand of a watch.

Put into words what time it is (only the hour) and use the conceptions: almost, just

The pupils can put into words: to the hour, past the hour, but also half past.

They can put the hands on five minutes to the hour.

II

The pupils can read the clock, 5 minutes to the hour.

They can put the hands on five minutes to the hour.

III.

The pupils can divide the hour in minutes and the minute in seconds.

They can exactly find the duration between the points of time on one minute exact.

They can read, interpret and use a timetable.

 

 

 

Arrangement of the materials/classroom.

 

Questions that could be asked all over the grades.

 

1.How many hours are there in 1 day, day, day and 1/3 day.

2.At what time does a new day begins?

3.What time does school start?

4.What time does school finish?

5.How long are you at school?

6.What time do you go to bed?

7.What time do you get up?

8.How long are you in bed?

9.What time does it get dark?

10.What time does it get light?

11.How many hours of the day are in darkness?

12.How many hours of the day are in the daylight?

I.

You can sentize the children by a short educational talk about time.

Start from now to arrive at then. Tie on to confidant situations or givens.

Ex. Refer to the reading lessons.

         -We are on time at school

         -Mammy and daddy are on

          time at work.

         -The train leaves on time.

With which means people can be on time thanks to the clock. People can so measure time by using the position of the sun. Later on the people had the sundial and the hourglass. More lately the first watches were made (try to illustrate with concrete objects or drawings).

The teacher can also tell the story of big Tembo and small Banda (can be a woman or a man) to explain the difference between the short and the long hand of a clock.

Mister small Banda is the short hand and is the boss.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

II.

Mention the parts of the clock, dial plate, hands, and numerals.

Repeat hour, hour and quarter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

III.

We resume some known matters in connection with time and duration of time.

The division of a year in months, weeks and also the leap year.

The duration of a month.  

The duration of a natural day, 24 h

Conceptions like term, college half- year, season, century.

The division of the hour in minutes  and quarters.

The spelling of an indi-cation of  time. Ex: a quarter to four or

03h45 or 03.45 or 03.45h.

We discuss also the indication of  time before and afternoon.

04.15h  -  16.15h  difference 12h.

Indicate the number of days between two given dates.

Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday, Saturday and Sunday

I.

Presentation of the clock. Present a concrete clock (real, carton, BB) and introduce the hands. Use the correct vocabulary.

It is five oclock.

It is almost

It is past

You let walk Tembo over the plate, now and then you stop and you ask the questions:

-Who is the boss?

-The small hand? Why?

-He shows us what it is.

-To what is pointing the short hand?

-To

-That is about an hour

-So it is hour.

Put everything into words, the children have to put into words.

Do a lot of exercises like this.

When the pupils understand the whole system the teacher will stop the short hand between two numbers.

The next step is

It is about hour (The hour the most close to the small hand).

It is almost

After that the children will work with individual clocks.

We use the conception to and past.

Divide the clock in two, parts

Yellow is to (left)

Red is past (right)

Make two cards and a chart with the clock and the colours.

When Tembo is in the red zone then we call it past, is he in the yellow zone then we call it to.

When it is past it will be after the hour when it is to , it will before the hour.

We limit to maximum fifteen minutes.

-Half an hour

-When Tembo is pointing 12 then the hand is neither in the zone to or in the zone past.

Who can tell me what time is it now?

We look at the small hand, which is just on, so it is now. hour.

When big man is on 6 then is he neither in the zone to or past.

We look at the small hand and see that is just between two numbers.

Big man did already half an hour work and he needs to do another half an hour work.

We call it half and always the hour that is coming up.

We train everyday a little bit.

Make sure that the children put every step into

-It is before eight oclock

-It is after three oclock.

-It is half past nine.

-Give some more exercises and let put the children the hands on the right place.

-Let dramatize the children, ask for the time, use the exact form of address

Missis

Miss

Mister

The exact wording: can you please tell what time it is now?

It is

Thank you

It is a pleasure.

II.

Train the clock on 5 minutes precise, use different kind of clocks.

We move on through one hour with leaps of five minutes.

It is also interesting by use of a daytime table of a child to compose a say clock.

-Get up in the morning.

-Breakfast

-Start of school

-Start and end of playtime.

During the exercise the time will be red and the given time will be showed with the hands.

Vocabulary:

-Five to eight.

-Five past seven

-Five minutes to half past nine.

-Five minutes past half past five

-Twenty minutes past six

-Ten minutes to half past seven

-Twenty minutes to ten.

-Ten minutes past half past nine.

III.

We discuss the division of a minute in seconds.

Refer to the time we did at the racing, walk racing and hopping. Put the time on the BB.we follow with our eyes the second hand of the watch: count.

Conclusion one minute = 60 seconds.

We count the number of pulse rate in 15 seconds, so we can calculate the pulse rate in 1 minute, x 4.

We hold ones breath during 30 seconds by looking at the watch.

We put the conclusion on the BB.

1 min = 60 sec.

min= 15 sec.

min = 15 sec

min = 45 sec.

1/6 min = 10 sec.

20 sec.= 1/3 min.

Refer to analogy minute-hour.

The time of the races.

Try to read a train time table with the children.

 

 

All the children must be involved as much as possible>

 

Let them put the hands at the right  position.

 

Let them mention the time.

 

Let them read the clock.

 

Let them make the exercises at the BB.

 

Let them repeat as much as possible the right time.

 

 

Exercises for II.

 

1h  = 60   ...

 

4h = ....min

 

1h + 30 min = ...min

 

75 min = ....h  + ....min

 

130 min = ....h  + ... min

 

220 min = ....h  + ...min

 

Till the next hour...

 

O6.15    min

18.40          min

16.12          min

12.04           ...............min

 

1 min = .60................

Exercises for III.

 

From 14.30 h till 16.45h  =

From 14.30h till 15 h = min

From 15.00h till 16h =. Hour

From 16.000h till 16.45h                   min

            

                                    ________________

 

                                    .h.min

                                    .h.min

 

shorter:

 

From 06.30h till 09.50 h

= min + .h + .min

= ..h + ....min

= ....h....min

Train  timetable:

            

 

Arrive

Depart

Kitwe

-

20.00h

Ndola

21.51h

22.11h

Kapiri

04.20h

04.40h

Kabwe

07.00h

07.06h

Lusaka

08.59h

 

     

1.What time does the train leaves Kitwe?

 

2. What time does the train arrives at Ndola?

 

3.What time the train arrives at/leaves at/waits at Kapiri-Mposhi.

 

4.Between which 2 stations is the train travelling at midnight?

 

5.At which station the train waits for exactly 20 minutes?

 

6. How long takes it from Lusaka to Kitwe by train?

 

Problems:

 

1.A lorry travels 315 kms in 7 hours. How far does it travel in one hour? What is the speed?

 

2.Ali walks at a speed of 5 km / h.

How long does it take him to walk

 

a.        5 km

b.        10 km

c.        2 km

d.        12 km

 

3. Make your self a problem.

 

 

 

 

 

LESSON PREPARATION FOR MATHEMATICS

 

GRADE 4 7

 

Theme: town

Topic: multiplication by seven.

Teaching aids: rolls, plastic bags, sticks or bars, pupils, rope.

 

Objectives:

1. The pupils realise that the multiplication is a abbreviate addition;

2. The pupils can group by 2,3...7 till 10 without remainder.

3. The children can group in a concrete and a shematic way per 7. 4. They can recognize the symbol x , use it at the note down and put it into words as time .

5. The children have to explain the product (write) when 2 factors are given and reverse.

6. They know the table of multiplication by heart, they can repeat without book.

7. They can write the table of multiplicatuion.

 

Note: information for the teacher

 

Multiply

 

The teacher will divide the class in equal groups. The pupils put into words times; they use the symbol x . The operator must be the first part of the multiplication.

 

Divide

 

Ex. 3 groups with seven children each= 3 x 7 = 21

The division is the inverted relation of the multiplication.

We distinguish the partition and proportion division.

 

a. The partition division

 

Father divides 60 kwacha under three children. All of them get the same amount. We know the partition will be under three children, but we dont know how much each child will get.

The solution: 60 (kwacha): 3 = 20 (kwacha).

Dividend and quotient can be named, the divider not.

 

b. The proportion division.

 

Father divides 60 kwacha under three children. They get each 20 kwacha.

We know how much each child get, but we dont under how many children the money was divided.

The solution: 60 (kwacha): 20 (kwacha) = 3 (children)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

DEVELOPMENT
EVALUATION

Story.

Bakers prepare a lot of rolls on Sunday.

These rolls are put in bags.

Bags with two rolls, 3 rolls, 4 rolls...

In the past bakers wrote their calculations like this:

 

2 rolls + 2 rolls + 2 rolls + 2 rolls...

3 rolls + 3 rolls + 3 rolls + 3 rolls...

4 rolls + 4 rolls + 4 rolls + 4 rolls...

7 rolls + 7 rolls + 7 rolls + 7 rolls...

 

Bakers who sold a lot of rolls must make yards long accounts.

One day, while all the other bakers of a village were doing their accounts, baker Phiri made a walk in the city centre with his wife.

All the other bakers were looking very surprised through the window.

Why baker Phiri was not doing his counts like they were doing?

Curious to know what is happening they asked some explanations.

Look, told baker Phiri, I was tired of making every day these long bills. During the baking I thought about the problem and one day I had an idea: instead of note down separate every bag with f.e. 3 rolls, I wrote:

20 bags of 320 bags of 3...

10 bags of 2...

30 bags of 4...

4   bags of 7...

 

The other bakers followed the example of baker Phiri resulting in that all the bakers could now make a walk with their wive every Sunday of the year

a. The concrete part

 

1. Some children will now play the story of baker Phiri, but only with 1 bag of seven rolls.

 

2. The teacher will keep the bag with seven rolls in front of the classroom.

    The next questions will be asked:

        - How many rolls do I have in the bag?

       - How many times seven do I have?

      - When I take one time seven how many rolls do I have?

 

3. The teacher puts a rope around the rolls and shows the label 7

b. The semi- abstract and abstract part          

 

1. The rolls are now drawed on the blackboard, in a set with a label.

 

2. Write the operation next to the set.

 

3. Repeat each step till 10 x 7

 

4. Involve the children as much as possible.

 

5. Let do the children all the actions:

 

                 - Taking the rolls

                 - Counting the rolls

                 - Putting them in the bags

                 - Saying the operations.

                 - Drawing on the blackboard

-Writing the operation.

                Now you go on till the operation 10 x 7   = 70 but you can use sticks or stones.

At the end you will have the whole table of multiplication on the blackboard.

This table must be written on a chart that you can put on the wall so at the end of the school year you will have the ten tables of multiplication on your wall.

Try to involve as much as possible the children by playing the story, by putting them in a set.

Let them draw the sets on the blackboard; let them write the operation and the answer next to the sets.

Let find out the children the sets, the operations, and the answers

a.        Let read the whole table loud and clear - in class

b.        Individual

The only way to achieve a table is repeating, memorising, in the right order. The multiplication 4 x 7 must be associated immediately at 28.The exercise of the multiplication must be loud, you must hear it, so the other children can hear it too and every child will remind the table! It is recomended to do the memorising of the table several times per day, five minutes before break, before going home

 

Make a song of the table and sign the song with the children, they will sing it everywhere, at home, in the school on the street

The multiplication by seven song:

=========================

One times seven equals seven.

Two times seven equals fourteen.

Three times seven equals twenty-one.

Four times seven equals twenty-eight.

Five times seven equals thirty-five.

Six times seven equals fourty two

Seven times seven equals fourty nine.

Eight times seven equals fifty-six.

Nine times seven equals sixty-three.

Ten times seven equals seventy

 

Two children stands in front of the class and are reciting the table, when they make a mistake the other pupils can put the finger in the air.

All the pupils stand up. The teacher is askimg the operations, when a child gives a good answer he can sit down.

All the pupils sit down. The teacher is asking the operations, when a child gives a good answer he can stand up.

 

 

 

 

 

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